Francis Crick (8 June 1916 — 28 July 2004) was an English scientist who was most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 alongside James D. Watson.
by John E Dunn
Experiment spots spooky quantum imprinting effect.
A Nobel Prize winning biologist has ignited controversy after publishing details of an experiment in which a fragment of DNA appeared to ‘teleport’ or imprint itself between test tubes.
According to a team headed by Luc Montagnier, previously known for his work on HIV and AIDS, two test tubes, one of which contained a tiny piece of bacterial DNA, the other pure water, were surrounded by a weak electromagnetic field of 7Hz.
Eighteen hours later, after DNA amplification using a polymerase chain reaction, as if by magic the DNA was detectable in the test tube containing pure water.
Oddly, the original DNA sample had to be diluted many times over for the experiment to work, which might explain why the phenomenon has not been detected before, assuming that this is what has happened.
The phenomenon might be very loosely described as ‘teleportation’ except that the bases project or imprint themselves across space rather than simply moving from one place to another.
To be on the safe side, Montagnier then compared the results with controls in which the time limit was lowered, no electromagnetic field was present or was present but at lower frequencies, and in which both tubes contained pure water. On every one of these, he drew a blank.
The possible quantum effect – the apparent imprinting of the DNA on the water – is not in itself the most contentious element of the experiment, so much as the relatively long timescales over which it appears to manifest itself. Quantum phenomena are assumed to show their faces in imperceptible fractions of a second and not seconds minutes and hours, and usually at very low temperatures approaching absolute zero.
Revealing a process through which biology might display the underlying ‘quantumness’ of nature at room temperature would be startling.
Montagnier’s experiment will have to be repeated by others to have any hope of being taken seriously. So far, some scientists have been publically incredulous.
“It is hard to understand how the information can be stored within water over a timescale longer than picoseconds,” said the Ruhr University in Bochum’s Klaus Gerwert, quoted by New Scientist magazine, which broke the story (requires registration).
What does all of this mean? It could be that the propagation of life is able to make use of the quantum nature of reality to project itself in subtle ways, as has been hinted at in previous experiments. Alternatively, it could be that life itself is a complex projection of these quantum phenomena and utterly depends on them in ways not yet understood because they are incredibly hard to detect.
Speculatively, (and Montagnier doesn’t directly suggest anything so unsubstantiated), it could also be the little-understood quantum properties of the water molecule and not just its more obvious chemical bonding properties that gives it such a central role in the bio-engineering of life-forms. Water might be a good medium in which DNA can copy itself using processes that hint at quantum entanglement and ‘teleportation’ (our term).
Montagnier’s paper goes on to discuss the phenomenon he claims to have uncovered using ‘quantum field theory’ within the context of his personal interest, disease propagation.
The ribosome is one of lifes most ancient molecular machines which translates mRNA into proteins. It is remarkably conserved among organisms even in phylogenetically distinct and distant organisms. These similarities are of course greatest in areas of the ribosome that are directly engaged in the functional steps of protein synthesis. The bacterial 70S ribosome consists of two subunits (30S or the small subunit and 50S or the large subunit) that associate upon initiation of protein synthesis. It has a molecular weight of 2.5 MD of which one third is protein (roughly 50 proteins) and two thirds are ribosomal RNA, rRNA (three rRNA molecules).
S is short for Svedberg unit, the sedimentation coefficient or the rate at which a particle sediments in a gravitational field, i.e. under centrifugation. The technique of analytical ultracentrifugation was developped by Theodor Svedberg, Professor in Physical Chemistry at Uppsala University who was awarded the 1926 Nobel Price in Chemistry. Using this technique the size of the different ribosomal components were determined.
During the cycle of protein synthesis, the ribosome interacts with mRNA and tRNAs as well as protein translation factors.
The 30S subunit consists of one molecule of 16S rRNA, and 20 different proteins of various sizes. This unit is responsible for formation of the initiation complex, performs the decoding of the genetic information, and controls the fidelity of codon-anticodon interactions. The large subunit consists of 2 RNA molcules: 23S and 5S rRNA, and 34 proteins. This subunit catalyzes the reactions of peptide bond formation and peptide release. It also provides the path for the nascent polypeptide chain through a tunnel.
The first structure of a bacterial ribosome came in 2000. To date, the best resolution obtained for any of the ribosomal subunits, is for the 50S subunit from Haloalcura marismortui (an archaebacteria living in the dead sea) which was solved to 2.4 Å. Ribosomes from Thermus thermophilus, a termophile bacterium originally isolated from thermal springs in Japan, are also often used in structural studies. The ribosomes from both of these bacteria are exceptionally stable, which is an important factor when working with large complexes with many components (you don’t want the complex to dissociate). In this exercise we are going to look at ribosomes, or individual subunits, from Thermus thermophilus.
The function of the ribosomes in the cell is to translate the genetic information in form of mRNA into proteins. The mRNA is transcribed from DNA using an enzyme called RNA polymerase. To do this, the ribosome requires the presence of adaptor molecules, the so called transfer RNAs (tRNAs). The tRNAs are small RNA molecules with a defined 3D structure. The tRNAs are charged with the correct amino acid by specific enzymes called aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. When correctly charged, they function as adaptors between a three-base mRNA codon and the corresponding amino acid.
Figure 1. A) Schematic drawing of a “clover-leaf formed” tRNA secondary structure with the anti-codon opposite to the amino acid attachment site. The amino acid is attached by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase to the 3′ end of the tRNA molecule. B) and C). 3D representations of the L-shaped tRNA tertiary structure.
Which amino acid that is going to be incorporated into the growing peptide chain is determined by the codon (a triplet of bases) on the mRNA (fig 2). Many amino acids have several codon options, so each amino acid can be incorporated by a set of different codons. For example, the amino acid lysine has two codons and serine has 6 different codons. Codons for the same amino acid tend to have the same nucleotides for the two first positions and only differ in the third position. Only two amino acids, tryptophan and methionine, have one single codon. The codon for methionine is also a start signal for protein synthesis. There are also several stop codons, which are used as a signal when the protein message is ending. These are decoded not by a tRNA but by a protein called release factor.
Figure 2. The genetic code represented as a wheel. The mRNA codon is read from the center and outwards, illustrating that the first two positions of a codon are more critical for the choice of amino acid than the third one.
The reading of the mRNA codon is performed by the three bases on the tRNA that makes up the so called anti-codon. If the pairing is correct, this amino acid will be incorporated into the growing peptide chain. Since most amino acids have several codons at their disposal, this must mean that either there must be many more tRNAs than is absolutely necessary, or that some tRNAs can base pair with more than one codon. In fact, both scenarios are true. Some amino acids do have more than one tRNA but. Also, while the first two base pairs strictly have to be correctly base paired, in the third so-called wobble position of the codon, some mismatches and non-standard base pairs are tolerated. This also explains why often different codons for the same amino acid have the same bases in the first two positions.
tRNA binding sites and the elongation cycle
The ribosome binds mRNA and three tRNAs. The tRNA sites are called the A (aminoacyl), P (peptidyl) and E (exit) site.
In the initiation step, the two ribosomal subunits assemble on the mRNA, with an initiator tRNA in the P site base-paired to a start codon of an mRNA. After initiation, the addition of each amino acid to the peptide chain can be described by the three steps of the elongation cycle (fig 3).
Figure 3. The elongation cycle.
Step 1, Decoding: An aminoacyl tRNA carrying the correct amino acid binds to the A site, delivered by the protein EF-Tu. Base pairs are formed between its anticodon and the mRNA codon positioned in the A site. The “decoding center” of the small ribosomal subunit checks that base-pairing is correct.
Step 2, Peptide bond formation: The polypeptide chain is transferred from the P-site tRNA to the free amino group of the amino acid attached to the A-site tRNA, forming a new peptide bond. This reaction is catalysed by the peptidyl transferase center of the large ribosomal subunit. This reaction is followed by a series of large conformational changes, which shift the two tRNAs into the P and E sites of the large subunit, so the tRNA which previously was in the A-site is now in the P-site and the E-site is bound with the former tRNA of the P-site.
Step 3, Translocation: Through large conformational changes catalysed by the protein EF-G, the mRNA moves by three nucleotides with respect to the the small ribosomal subunit together with the tRNAs so that the ribosome is ready to enter the next round and accept a new tRNA.
These three steps are repeted in a so-called elongation cycle until the ribosome reaches a stop codon, where synthesis is stopped and the protein chain is released. Procaryotic ribosomes are remarkably efficient: within a bacterial cell, one ribosome can add 20 amino acids to a growing polypeptide chain every second.
The ribosome is helped both at the start and end of translation by specialized proteins called initiation factors and release factors, respectively.
First we are going to have a look at the general architechture of the complete 70S subunit from Thermus thermophilus. This 2.8 Å resolution structure of the ribosome bound to mRNA and three tRNAs was released last year.
This file contain two layers. The first layer, 2j00, contains the 30S subunit (small subunit), three tRNAs and a short mRNA molecule. The 30S ribosomal proteins have been colored pale yellow, A-site tRNA is blue, P-site tRNA is red, E-site tRNA is colored in magenta and mRNA is green.
The layer 2j01 contains the 50S subunit (large subunit) with the 50S ribosomal proteins in light blue.
All ribosomal RNA is CPK colored.
*Choose to look at only the small subunit (2j00) by clicking off the “visible” box of 2j01
*Display only the 30S subunit by clicking off the three tRNAs (chains V, W and X), the mRNA (chain Y) and the ions if those are visible (chain W).
*Look at the proteins only by selecting the first protein chain and keep on selecting the protein chains further down in the control panel by clicking on the chains while pressing the ctrl key.
*Now do the same for the large subunit
Q1. What are the approximate proportions of protein and RNA in the two subunits (more protein, more RNA or about the same)?
*Display only the three tRNAs and the mRNA (2j00, chains V, W, X and Y)
*You will notice that only half of the A-site tRNA is visible. Only the so-called “anticodon stem-loop” (ASL) part of this tRNA (corresponding to the lower part in fig 1A) was visible in the structure, probably because the 50S subunit only holds the A-site tRNA in a fixed conformation when it carries an aminoacid or a peptide.
*Notice the kink of the mRNA between the A- and P-site codons.
Q2. What three-base codons are located in the A- P- and E-site? Which amino acids do they code for (see fig 2 above)? How many and what kind of base pairs (standard Watson-Crick or not) are formed between these codons and the three tRNA anticodons?
*Notice the kink of the mRNA between the A- and P-site codons.
*Scientists studying the ribosome guessed that such a kink was present long before it could be experimentally verified. Let’s figure out why they thought it would be there!
Q3. What is the distance between two three-base codons along a straight piece of mRNA (measure from first base in P site to first base in E site)? What is the width of a tRNA in the direction of the mRNA? What would happen if there was no kink between the A and P-site codons?
*Turn on 16S RNA (2j00, chain A)
*Center on an atom in the anticodon of the A-site tRNA (use the “eye” button).
*Use the slab option under Display to remove parts of the molecule so that you can see how 16S RNA interacts with the mRNA and tRNA.
Q4. Which bases interact with the three mRNA-tRNA base pairs in the A site? What kind of interactions do they make?
Q5. Can these contacts explain why the first two base pairs have to be standard Watson-Crick while some mismatches can be tolerated in the third position?
Here you can find a small animation of how the the bases you just looked at change their conformation when tRNA binds. The movement of these three bases leeds to “closing” of the head domain of the 30S subunit when the ASL (in yellow) binds: Induced fit animation. By monitoring the correctness of the basepairing this way, the ribosome can decrease the error frequency compared to if only the affinity difference between correct and in-correct tRNAs to a codon would matter. The film may take a while to load.
*Now center on an atom in the anticodon of the P-site tRNA.
Q6. Are there any contacts between 16S RNA and the mRNA-tRNA base pairs in the P site?
Q7. During the elongation cycle, the tRNA is translocated together with the mRNA to the P site from the A site (and the mRNA-tRNA base pairing has already been checked in the A site). Do the interactions you observe agree with such functions of the A and P sites?
*Now center on the 3′ end of the P-site tRNA.
*Turn off 16S RNA
*Display the 50S subunit (2j01)
*This is where the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome; the catalytic site for peptide bond formation.
*In this structure only the 3′ end of the tRNA carrying the peptide is present; the 3′ end of the A-site tRNA, where the peptide is transferred is dis-ordered.
Q8. Does the catalytic center seem to consist of protein or RNA? Is any protein in contact with the 3′ end of the tRNA?
You can see that the ribosome is not an enzyme, but a ribozyme (catalytic RNA molecule) and no protein takes part in the reaction. The protein that comes close is L27, and it has been shown biochemically that it makes the ribosome slightly faster Probably it is helping to correctly position P-site tRNA.
*Now select and display only the protein L15 (2j01, chain P).
*Turn off 2j00.
Q9. What is special about this structure compared to “normal” protein structures?
*Add residues within 4 Å of L15 to the view (Select => Neighbours of selected aa)
Q10. How is this structure stabilized? Give a few examples of interactions.
The relationship between our DNA and our dreams…
How the EGO and HS came to be after our DNA was altered following the frequency fence which was put in place around planet Earth after the fall of Atlantis…
how to become our HS once more and rise again to a whole new level of consciousness…
Originally printed in the New York Times, here’s the text printed over and under these images:
One is only micrometers wide. The other is billions of light-years across. One shows neurons in a mouse brain. The other is a simulated image of the universe. Together they suggest the surprisingly similar patterns found in vastly different natural phenomena.
Mark Miller, a doctoral student at Brandeis University, is researching how particular types of neurons in the brain are connected to one another. The image [on the left] shows three neuron cells on the left (two red and one yellow) and their connections.
An international group of astrophysicists used a computer simulation last year to recreate how the universe grew and evolved. The simulation image [on the right] is a snapshot of the present universes that features a large cluster of galaxies (bright yellow) surrounded by thousands of stars, galaxies and dark matter (web).
What struck me about this is not the similarity between neuron and universe, though it’s striking — rather it’s the continuity of parallels one finds whenever one looks into the structures of nature.
From Hermetics to the Tao of Physics — A Universe of Parallels
“As above, so below,” goes the Hermetic belief — “That which is Below corresponds to that which is Above, and that which is Above, corresponds to that which is Below, to accomplish the miracles of the One Thing”. In Eastern thought, this idea is often paraphrased as “As is the microcosm, so is the microcosm.”
I first came across these concepts in my reading of The Tao of Physics. Fritjof Capra’s classic opened the eyes of many in the west — and helped spawn the New Age movement — by detailing the close, often uncanny parallels between Eastern, metaphysical cosmology and the furthest reaches of western, theoretical physics.
Capra was derided by some scientists as superficial and misleading, yet he had his allies among the luminaries of physics. Interviewed by Renee Weber in the book The Holographic Paradigm, Capra describes his discussions with Werner Heisenberg:
I had several discussions with Heisenberg. I lived in England then [circa 1972], and I visited him several times in Munich and showed him the whole manuscript [of The Tao of Physics] chapter by chapter. He was very interested and very open, and he told me something that I think is not known publicly because he never published it. He said that he was well aware of these parallels. While he was working on quantum theory he went to India to lecture and was a guest of [poet Rabindrinath] Tagore. He talked a lot with Tagore about Indian philosophy. Heisenberg told me that these talks had helped him a lot with his work in physics, because they showed him that all these new ideas in quantum physics were in fact not all that crazy. He realized there was, in fact, a whole culture that subscribed to very similar ideas. Heisenberg said that this was a great help for him. Niels Bohr had a similar experience when he went to China.
Subjective and Objective, Physiology and Veda
My own explorations on the subject have come not from the objectivist tradition of western science, but rather from many years practicing meditation and studying the Upanishads and other Vedic literature — exploring a consciousness-centered paradigm, you might say. I have also seen some very interesting conversations between Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (founder of the Transcendental Meditation movement) and leading scientists such as Ilya Prigogene, the “human thermodynamics” pioneer.
Over the course of his career, Maharishi pushed to validate the subjectively derived insights of meditation through western science. He would button any Nobel laureate within reach, attempting to ground the discoveries and theories of physics, chemistry and biology in Vedic structures of reality. Maharishi eventually commissioned MIT research physician Tony Nader to locate the entire structure of Vedic literature in the brain physiology and central nervous system. Nader published his insights as Human Physiology: Expression of the Veda and Vedic Literature.
In one of the more fanciful sections of the book, Nader even finds a close resemblance between the shape of the hippocampus — responsible for memory forming, organizing, and storing — and images of the elephant-headed god Ganesh, the deva of intellect and wisdom.
In the Chinese tradition (to pick almost at random from the analogs found in the mythos of ancient civilization) physical and mathematical structures like chaos also seem clearly laid out:
Chaos is the supreme ideal of Taoism. Chaos is wholeness, oneness and Nature. Chaos represents the natural state of the world. Digging holes on the head of Chaos means destroying the natural state of the cosmos. Therefore, to the ancient Chinese people chaos not only has the meaning of disorder but also presents a respectable aesthetic state. This idea of chaos may be very different from its western counterpart.
(From “A Brief History of the Concept of Chaos” — Huajie Liu, Department of Philosophy, Peking University)
Given all of which, it should hardly be surprising that a neuron (microcosm) should resemble the universe (macrocosm). While modern science has been a little slow to concede the chain of parallels, one can almost see the ancient rishis rolling their eyes and saying, “Duh!”
By John Timmer
For many years, the evolution of protein production (called translation) seemed like a bit of a chicken-and-egg problem. The complex that catalyzes translation, the ribosome, contains both RNA and proteins, which causes a bit of a paradox: how did the first proteins get made if their production required the ribosome’s proteins? Decades ago, Francis Crick had suggested a simple solution, where the chemical reactions that link a chain of amino acids into a protein were catalyzed by RNA. But, for many years, this suggestion was largely ignored, as many assumed that the ribosomal RNA did little more than act as scaffolding for the complex’s proteins.
But, over time, bits of biochemical evidence suggested Crick might have been on to something, as they hinted that the ribosomal RNA might be a bit more than inert scaffolding. Ultimately, the conclusive evidence came when researchers finally determined the structure of an intact ribosome, and located the active site. There were no proteins at the site, simply RNA.
Two of the people honored with Nobel Prizes for determining the structure of the ribosome were at the Lindau Meeting (Ada Yonath and Thomas Steitz), and they spoke for a bit about the long and sometimes challenging work that eventually got them the ribosome’s structure. But it was the structure itself that was really the star of their presentations.
In this image, the protein components of the ribosome are shown in yellow; it’s RNA is in grey. What should be obvious is that the image of rRNA as a scaffold for proteins has it exactly backwards. Instead, the proteins are simply sprinkled across the surface of a massive RNA that is the primary component of the ribosome. Now, it should have been possible to figure out the relative sizes of the molecules involved here and make the prediction that this was the more probable picture. But, in the absence of the structure, it’s not obvious that people would have really found these sorts of arguments compelling.
With additional structures, it was possible to catch snapshots of the ribosome at work. Steitz showed these in video form, complete with a sound track that had the audience bursting out laughing.
With the progress we’ve had in building our own catalytic RNAs, some of the details here aren’t really surprising: base pairing helps line up the tRNA that carries an amino acid into the reaction, another base interacts with the amino acid directly to position it properly, and parts of a sugar on the RNA backbone helps drive the actual catalytic step. But some of these structures are well over a decade old, so they were more of a surprise when they first came out.
The structure has told us a lot about the ribosome, but it’s probably told us more about the origin of life. The first catalytic RNAs has led to the hypothesis that there might once have been an RNA world that existed before there were proteins, where genetic information and catalytic activity were combined in a single molecule. The key role of RNA in the ribosome obviously hints that it was probably once performing translation without the help of any proteins whatsoever. And that in turn indicates that RNA isn’t limited to catalyzing the simple, one-off reactions that are typical of the one’s we’ve been producing. In the ribosome, RNA can form large cooperative complexes, run through a complex catalytic cycle, and generate products that are essential to life.
If you read through the above, two themes should be apparent. One is that we didn’t absolutely need the structure of the ribosome to figure all of this out; a lot of it could be reasoned or pieced together from bits of information gathered in other experiments. But the second theme is that the structure of the ribosome, in a conclusive and visual way, made all of those arguments far more compelling, and brought the reasoning to a decisive end.
Although Steitz and Yonath mostly focused on the history of their work in obtaining this structure, their work is so compelling that just a few pictures and a short video were able to tell the audience a lot about the history of all life on Earth.
by Grazyna Fosar and Franz Bludorf
Russian DNA Discoveries: Original version
THE HUMAN DNA IS A BIOLOGICAL INTERNET and superior in many aspects to the artificial one. The latest Russian scientific research directly or indirectly explains phenomena such as clairvoyance, intuition, spontaneous and remote acts of healing, self healing, affirmation techniques, unusual light/auras around people (namely spiritual masters), mind’s influence on weather patterns and much more. In addition, there is evidence for a whole new type of medicine in which DNA can be influenced and reprogrammed by words and frequencies WITHOUT cutting out and replacing single genes.
Only 10% of our DNA is being used for building proteins. It is this subset of DNA that is of interest to western researchers and is being examined and categorized. The other 90% are considered “junk DNA.” The Russian researchers, however, convinced that nature was not dumb, joined linguists and geneticists in a venture to explore those 90% of “junk DNA.” Their results, findings and conclusions are simply revolutionary! According to them, our DNA is not only responsible for the construction of our body but also serves as data storage and in communication. The Russian linguists found that the genetic code, especially in the apparently useless 90%, follows the same rules as all our human languages. To this end they compared the rules of syntax (the way in which words are put together to form phrases and sentences), semantics (the study of meaning in language forms) and the basic rules of grammar.
They found that the alkalines of our DNA follow a regular grammar and do have set rules just like our languages. So human languages did not appear coincidentally but are a reflection of our inherent DNA.
The Russian biophysicist and molecular biologist Pjotr Garjajev and his colleagues also explored the vibrational behavior of the DNA. [For the sake of brevity I will give only a summary here. For further exploration please refer to the appendix at the end of this article.] The bottom line was: “Living chromosomes function just like solitonic/holographic computers using the endogenous DNA laser radiation.” This means that they managed for example to modulate certain frequency patterns onto a laser ray and with it influenced the DNA frequency and thus the genetic information itself. Since the basic structure of DNA-alkaline pairs and of language (as explained earlier) are of the same structure, no DNA decoding is necessary.
One can simply use words and sentences of the human language! This, too, was experimentally proven! Living DNA substance (in living tissue, not in vitro) will always react to language-modulated laser rays and even to radio waves, if the proper frequencies are being used.
This finally and scientifically explains why affirmations, autogenous training, hypnosis and the like can have such strong effects on humans and their bodies. It is entirely normal and natural for our DNA to react to language. While western researchers cut single genes from the DNA strands and insert them elsewhere, the Russians enthusiastically worked on devices that can influence the cellular metabolism through suitable modulated radio and light frequencies and thus repair genetic defects.
Garjajev’s research group succeeded in proving that with this method chromosomes damaged by x-rays for example can be repaired. They even captured information patterns of a particular DNA and transmitted it onto another, thus reprogramming cells to another genome. So they successfully transformed, for example, frog embryos to salamander embryos simply by transmitting the DNA information patterns! This way the entire information was transmitted without any of the side effects or disharmonies encountered when cutting out and re-introducing single genes from the DNA. This represents an unbelievable, world-transforming revolution and sensation! All this by simply applying vibration and language instead of the archaic cutting-out procedure! This experiment points to the immense power of wave genetics, which obviously has a greater influence on the formation of organisms than the biochemical processes of alkaline sequences.
Esoteric and spiritual teachers have known for ages that our body is programmable by language, words and thought. This has now been scientifically proven and explained. Of course the frequency has to be correct. And this is why not everybody is equally successful or can do it with always the same strength. The individual person must work on the inner processes and maturity in order to establish a conscious communication with the DNA. The Russian researchers work on a method that is not dependent on these factors but will ALWAYS work, provided one uses the correct frequency.
But the higher developed an individual’s consciousness is, the less need is there for any type of device! One can achieve these results by oneself, and science will finally stop to laugh at such ideas and will confirm and explain the results. And it doesn’t end there. The Russian scientists also found out that our DNA can cause disturbing patterns in the vacuum, thus producing magnetized wormholes! Wormholes are the microscopic equivalents of the so-called Einstein-Rosen bridges in the vicinity of black holes (left by burned-out stars). These are tunnel connections between entirely different areas in the universe through which information can be transmitted outside of space and time. The DNA attracts these bits of information and passes them on to our consciousness. This process of hypercommunication is most effective in a state of relaxation. Stress, worries or a hyperactive intellect prevent successful hypercommunication or the information will be totally distorted and useless.
In nature, hypercommunication has been successfully applied for millions of years. The organized flow of life in insect states proves this dramatically. Modern man knows it only on a much more subtle level as “intuition.” But we, too, can regain full use of it. An example from Nature: When a queen ant is spatially separated from her colony, building still continues fervently and according to plan. If the queen is killed, however, all work in the colony stops. No ant knows what to do. Apparently the queen sends the “building plans” also from far away via the group consciousness of her subjects. She can be as far away as she wants, as long as she is alive. In man hypercommunication is most often encountered when one suddenly gains access to information that is outside one’s knowledge base. Such hypercommunication is then experienced as inspiration or intuition. The Italian composer Giuseppe Tartini for instance dreamt one night that a devil sat at his bedside playing the violin. The next morning Tartini was able to note down the piece exactly from memory, he called it the Devil’s Trill Sonata.
For years, a 42-year old male nurse dreamt of a situation in which he was hooked up to a kind of knowledge CD-ROM. Verifiable knowledge from all imaginable fields was then transmitted to him that he was able to recall in the morning. There was such a flood of information that it seemed a whole encyclopedia was transmitted at night. The majority of facts were outside his personal knowledge base and reached technical details about which he knew absolutely nothing.
When hypercommunication occurs, one can observe in the DNA as well as in the human being special phenomena. The Russian scientists irradiated DNA samples with laser light. On screen a typical wave pattern was formed. When they removed the DNA sample, the wave pattern did not disappear, it remained. Many control experiments showed that the pattern still came from the removed sample, whose energy field apparently remained by itself. This effect is now called phantom DNA effect. It is surmised that energy from outside of space and time still flows through the activated wormholes after the DNA was removed. The side effect encountered most often in hypercommunication also in human beings are inexplicable electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of the persons concerned. Electronic devices like CD players and the like can be irritated and cease to function for hours. When the electromagnetic field slowly dissipates, the devices function normally again. Many healers and psychics know this effect from their work. The better the atmosphere and the energy, the more frustrating it is that the recording device stops functioning and recording exactly at that moment. And repeated switching on and off after the session does not restore function yet, but next morning all is back to normal. Perhaps this is reassuring to read for many, as it has nothing to do with them being technically inept, it means they are good at hypercommunication.
In their book “Vernetzte Intelligenz” (Networked Intelligence), Grazyna Gosar and Franz Bludorf explain these connections precisely and clearly. The authors also quote sources presuming that in earlier times humanity had been, just like the animals, very strongly connected to the group consciousness and acted as a group. To develop and experience individuality we humans however had to forget hypercommunication almost completely. Now that we are fairly stable in our individual consciousness, we can create a new form of group consciousness, namely one, in which we attain access to all information via our DNA without being forced or remotely controlled about what to do with that information. We now know that just as on the internet our DNA can feed its proper data into the network, can call up data from the network and can establish contact with other participants in the network. Remote healing, telepathy or “remote sensing” about the state of relatives etc. can thus be explained. Some animals know also from afar when their owners plan to return home. That can be freshly interpreted and explained via the concepts of group consciousness and hypercommunication. Any collective consciousness cannot be sensibly used over any period of time without a distinctive individuality. Otherwise we would revert to a primitive herd instinct that is easily manipulated.
Hypercommunication in the new millennium means something quite different: Researchers think that if humans with full individuality would regain group consciousness, they would have a god-like power to create, alter and shape things on Earth! AND humanity is collectively moving toward such a group consciousness of the new kind. Fifty percent of today’s children will be problem children as soon as the go to school. The system lumps everyone together and demands adjustment. But the individuality of today’s children is so strong that that they refuse this adjustment and giving up their idiosyncrasies in the most diverse ways.
At the same time more and more clairvoyant children are born [see the book “China’s Indigo Children” by Paul Dong or the chapter about Indigos in my book “Nutze die taeglichen Wunder” (Make Use of the Daily Wonders)]. Something in those children is striving more and more towards the group consciousness of the new kind, and it will no longer be suppressed. As a rule, weather for example is rather difficult to influence by a single individual. But it may be influenced by a group consciousness (nothing new to some tribes doing it in their rain dances). Weather is strongly influenced by Earth resonance frequencies, the so-called Schumann frequencies. But those same frequencies are also produced in our brains, and when many people synchronize their thinking or individuals (spiritual masters, for instance) focus their thoughts in a laser-like fashion, then it is scientifically speaking not at all surprising if they can thus influence weather.
Researchers in group consciousness have formulated the theory of Type I civilizations. A humanity that developed a group consciousness of the new kind would have neither environmental problems nor scarcity of energy. For if it were to use its mental power as a unified civilization, it would have control of the energies of its home planet as a natural consequence. And that includes all natural catastrophes!!! A theoretical Type II civilization would even be able to control all energies of their home galaxy. In my book “Nutze die taeglichen Wunder,” I have described an example of this: Whenever a great many people focus their attention or consciousness on something similar like Christmas time, football world championship or the funeral of Lady Diana in England then certain random number generators in computers start to deliver ordered numbers instead of the random ones. An ordered group consciousness creates order in its whole surroundings! [http://noosphere.princeton.edu/fristwall2.html]  When a great number of people get together very closely, potentials of violence also dissolve. It looks as if here, too, a kind of humanitarian consciousness of all humanity is created.
At the Love Parade, for example, where every year about one million of young people congregate, there has never been any brutal riots as they occur for instance at sports events. The name of the event alone is not seen as the cause here. The result of an analysis indicated rather that the number of people was TOO GREAT to allow a tipping over to violence.
To come back to the DNA: It apparently is also an organic superconductor that can work at normal body temperature. Artificial superconductors require extremely low temperatures of between 200 and 140°C to function. As one recently learned, all superconductors are able to store light and thus information. This is a further explanation of how the DNA can store information. There is another phenomenon linked to DNA and wormholes. Normally, these supersmall wormholes are highly unstable and are maintained only for the tiniest fractions of a second. Under certain conditions (read about it in the Fosar/Bludorf book above) stable wormholes can organize themselves which then form distinctive vacuum domains in which for example gravity can transform into electricity.
Vacuum domains are self-radiant balls of ionized gas that contain considerable amounts of energy. There are regions in Russia where such radiant balls appear very often. Following the ensuing confusion the Russians started massive research programs leading finally to some of the discoveries mentions above. Many people know vacuum domains as shiny balls in the sky. The attentive look at them in wonder and ask themselves, what they could be. I thought once: “Hello up there. If you happen to be a UFO, fly in a triangle.” And suddenly, the light balls moved in a triangle. Or they shot across the sky like ice hockey pucks. They accelerated from zero to crazy speeds while sliding gently across the sky. One is left gawking and I have, as many others, too, thought them to be UFOs. Friendly ones, apparently, as they flew in triangles just to please me. Now the Russians found in the regions, where vacuum domains appear often that sometimes fly as balls of light from the ground upwards into the sky, that these balls can be guided by thought. One has found out since that vacuum domains emit waves of low frequency as they are also produced in our brains.
And because of this similarity of waves they are able to react to our thoughts. To run excitedly into one that is on ground level might not be such a great idea, because those balls of light can contain immense energies and are able to mutate our genes. They can, they don’t necessarily have to, one has to say. For many spiritual teachers also produce such visible balls or columns of light in deep meditation or during energy work which trigger decidedly pleasant feelings and do not cause any harm. Apparently this is also dependent on some inner order and on the quality and provenance of the vacuum domain. There are some spiritual teachers (the young Englishman Ananda, for example) with whom nothing is seen at first, but when one tries to take a photograph while they sit and speak or meditate in hypercommunication, one gets only a picture of a white cloud on a chair. In some Earth healing projects such light effects also appear on photographs. Simply put, these phenomena have to do with gravity and anti-gravity forces that are also exactly described in the book and with ever more stable wormholes and hypercommunication and thus with energies from outside our time and space structure.
Earlier generations that got in contact with such hypercommunication experiences and visible vacuum domains were convinced that an angel had appeared before them. And we cannot be too sure to what forms of consciousness we can get access when using hypercommunication. Not having scientific proof for their actual existence (people having had such experiences do NOT all suffer from hallucinations) does not mean that there is no metaphysical background to it. We have simply made another giant step towards understanding our reality.
Official science also knows of gravity anomalies on Earth (that contribute to the formation of vacuum domains), but only of ones of below one percent. But recently gravity anomalies have been found of between three and four percent. One of these places is Rocca di Papa, south of Rome (exact location in the book “Vernetzte Intelligenz” plus several others). Round objects of all kinds, from balls to full buses, roll uphill. But the stretch in Rocca di Papa is rather short, and defying logic sceptics still flee to the theory of optical illusion (which it cannot be due to several features of the location).
All information is taken from the book “Vernetzte Intelligenz” von Grazyna Fosar und Franz Bludorf, ISBN 3930243237, summarized and commented by Baerbel. The book is unfortunately only available in German so far. You can reach the authors here: www.fosar-bludorf.com
A Layman’s Explanation by Lloyd Pye
In Brief: In 2011 the geneticist working on the Starchild Skull discovered that its mtDNA (the part of DNA passed only through the maternal line) was radically different from human DNA.
The maximum number of mtDNA differences between all humans is 120. The Starchild Skull has between 800-1,000. This is a partial result, but it is enough to be definitive: the Skull’s mtDNA is not human.
Below is a greatly simplified 1,200 word summary of a much more detailed report on this data available at: www.starchildproject.com/dna2011march.htm.
DNA has two types: nuclear (nuDNA) and mitochondrial (mtDNA). NuDNA is found in a cell’s nucleus, and it comes from both parents. MtDNA is found in tiny sub-cellular units called mitochondria that float in the cell’s cytoplasm (the jelly-like interior). MtDNA passes to each generation only through the maternal line.
The nuDNA genome is the total of all the base pairs (bp) it contains. Base pairs (bp) are the “steps” in the famous double-helix “ladder” of DNA. Each human cell has only one nucleus that contains a copy of the entire genome of more than 3 billion bp, and up to thousands of mitochondria, each containing the mtDNA genome of exactly 16,569 bp.
The DNA genomes for humans, Neanderthals, Denisovans (a new prehuman species announced in 2010), chimps, and gorillas are all the same approximate size. Therefore, it seems safe to assume the Starchild’s two genomes will have approximately the same number of base pairs as humans: nuDNA of 3 ± billion bp, and mtDNA of 16,600 ± bp.
In 2010, dozens of the Starchild’s nuclear DNA fragments were sequenced, adding up to about 30,000 bp. That was enough to be clearly indicative of what the total nuDNA genome will be when it is fully sequenced, but at only .0001% of a 3 billion bp genome, it was well short of the 1% (30 million) needed to establish definitive trends.
Recently, four fragments of Starchild mtDNA were sequenced, totaling 1,583 bp. That is a whopping 9.5% of its assumed 16,600 ± bp mtDNA genome, and nearly 10 times the 1% needed to make reliable projections. Thus, there can be no reasonable doubt that an incredible answer will result from a full recovery of the Starchild’s mtDNA genome. It further indicates that the vastly larger nuclear genome will be even more incredible!
In human nuDNA, only 2% of the 3 billion bp work to keep us alive. 98% is called “junk” because it has no known life-sustaining functions. Mutations in junk are nearly always non-disruptive and accumulate easily, resulting in an estimated 15 million in humans.
In mtDNA, the exact opposite applies. The great bulk of its functions are required for survival, so every mutation is a potential death sentence. Very rarely does a mutation occur in harmless areas, and all of those are well documented. In fact, the physical structure of mtDNA is one of the best-understood aspects of human biology.
Geneticists have been able to utilize the extreme rarity of mtDNA mutations to create a “biological clock” that dates humanity’s origin—the time we became a distinct species—to about 200,000 years ago. During those 200,000 years we have gradually but steadily accumulated a maximum of 120 variations in our mtDNA. The oldest humans (natives of South Africa) have the most (up to 120), and later human types have fewer and fewer.
Humanity’s 120 variations have been divided into 33 subunits known as haplogroups (shown left). Those 33 are derived from seven ancient females whom geneticists calculate were the founding matriarchs of our species [related in the book The Seven Daughters of Eve by Dr. Bryan Sykes, 2001]. Thus, every variation between every haplogroup is well known and chronicled, and every human belongs to one of the 33 haplogroups listed below.
The chart (left) shows how mtDNA is analyzed. At the top is the Control Region Sequence (CRS), the mtDNA pattern arbitrarily chosen from one individual to provide the human value baseline. Variations from the CRS establish the count of differences in all related species. Among the 33 human haplogroups, no individual has more than 120 differences.
At the chart’s bottom are Neanderthal mtDNA and mtDNA from two samples from Denisovans. Denisovans are a new species discovered in Siberia in 2010 when a finger bone and molar from what seemed to be Neanderthal remains were routinely analyzed. To everyone’s astonishment, the mtDNA in both of the samples produced 385 differences from the human CRS—185 more than Neanderthals (whose 200 differences are only 80 more than the human maximum of 120).
With so many undeniable differences, and because mtDNA is so highly conserved and unerringly precise, geneticists had no choice but to classify Denisovans as an entirely new prehuman species closely related to humans and Neanderthals. [For comparison, the chimpanzee mtDNA genome contains 1500 differences from the human CRS.]
Now we will consider one of the four fragments of Starchild Skull mtDNA that has been sequenced, the smallest of the four at 167 base pairs. Below, it is compared to the human CRS, base pair to base pair, and below that is the top left half (outlined by a box) enlarged for visual clarity.
The blue bars show the differences in base pairs between the Starchild fragment (top line—167) and the corresponding segment of the CRS (bottom line—1269). This 72 bp part has 11 differences. In the non-enlarged parts are 95 bp with 6 more differences, for an astounding total of 17 differences between the Starchild and the human CRS!
The chart on the next page covers the segment of the human CRS that corresponds to the 167 bp segment sequenced from the Starchild. It extends from #1265 to #1432 (out of the CRS’s full compliment of 16,569). At this scale it is difficult to read, but it shows that among the 33 human haplogroups, those 167 bp have only one difference among all types of humans! [Three aqua lines highlight the differences: the first two lines are for differences in both of the Denisovan samples, and the third is for one difference in the Neanderthal and in one human haplogroup (HPT L1b) compared to the CRS.]
This stretch of mtDNA is one of the most extremely conserved in the entire genome, with only one difference among the 33 human haplogroups, one in Neanderthal, and two in Denisova. Yet, somehow, the Starchild mtDNA (see red arrow at bottom of chart below) carries within itself 16 additional differences! Even if multiple repetitions of this analysis should reveal that a few of its recorded differences were due to machine error or to human error, which can happen, the final total will still be mind-boggling!
If a human fetus were conceived with only one or two differences in an area of mtDNA Nature keeps so rigidly intact, it would abort spontaneously. Yet the Starchild grew to full term and aged enough to grind down the enamel of its adult-like teeth. Also, several experts have agreed the Skull belonged to an adult. This is convincing evidence that the Starchild was born, and lived its life, considerably different from any typical human.
Now recall that all four Starchild mtDNA fragments add up to 1,583 base pairs, which is 9.5% of what we assume will be a total mtDNA genome in the 16,600 ± range. Among the 1583 bp are 93 differences, which extrapolate to a shocking total of 976 differences!
[To extrapolate 9.5% out to 100%, divide 100 by 9.5 to get 10.5; then,10.5 x 93 = 976.]
Extrapolating a partial result for nuDNA usually provides only a tentative total, but with mtDNA we can be certain that extrapolating a nearly 10% result is dependably reliable. Why? Because the machines that sequence and analyze the results of that sequencing have become remarkably accurate. However, reading errors can and do occur, so that has to be taken into account. Assume 80 of the 93 are ultimately confirmed, leaving a total of 840 rather than 976. That is 720 more than any human on Earth could tolerate.
Errors or not, we can be supremely confident that the confirmed total of the Starchild’s differences will fall between 800 and 1000 bp, while all humans are 120 or less. Using the most effective techniques science can bring to bear to solve any problem of genetic heritage, techniques that are used with finality in court cases worldwide, the Starchild is shown to be nowhere near the ballpark of human or prehuman. This result is definitive.
Without doubt, without question, without fail, recovering both of the Starchild’s entire genomes will prove it to be so astonishingly far from humans that the only reasonable, logical, acceptable term for it will profoundly change human history forever…. ALIEN!