Milo Wolff, Mass. Inst. Tech. (retired)

1124 Third Street. Manhattan Beach, CA 90266

milo.wolff@QuantumMatter.com

Geoff Haselhurst,

Nornalup, West Australia

Haselhurst@SpaceAndMotion.com

A. Abstract-Introduction

Einstein was queried about the huge numbers of short-lived heavy particles found using

high-energy accelerators. Those physicists were seeking basic matter and wanted to know

Einstein’s thoughts. Einstein was a careful thinker not given to theatrics and was very

serious when he replied, I would just like to know what an electron is. Why did he say

this? His answer implied that the pedestrian electron, was more important to science than

billions of dollars spent on accelerators. Little attention was paid to his remark.

But Einstein saw the electron as the leading player in the universe, as could any

careful scientist because most activity of the Universe is e-m wave energy transfers

involving the electron. At the time, neither Einstein nor others understood the wavemechanisms

of the electron. Although the force between ‘electrons’ can be calculated

using rules of Physics I, the rules did not always match Nature. The electron did not

appear to be a discrete particle. Something was wrong and Einstein knew it.

Answering Einstein. This article shows that the electron is indeed the leading player

in the universe, deeply involved with the laws of nature. The method is to simply follow a

suggestion by Clifford and Schroedinger to reject the discrete material electron and

replace it with a wave-structured electron. The math is easy because scalar waves in

space are the only choice; Only a space wave medium and two principles are needed.

Amazingly, it is found that the wave structure has all the experimental properties of the

electron and is the origin of all the natural laws fulfilling Einstein’s intuition.

The value of philosophy. Einstein was greatly concerned about the electron because he

felt that the answer to his question might have a world-wide impact on industry,

medicine, our lives, and human affairs, as well as science and the universe. His reason

was due to his philosophical understanding of the roots of modern industrial society. In

his mind the electron appeared to be a intimation of Nature itself revealing the origins of

the natural laws that are the basis of the industry and technology of the modern world.

Thus knowing the electron would open an enormous window on the world of human

affairs. This article will reveal that his intuition was right, as well as that of many

pioneer scientists of the electron who have yet to be printed in the textbooks of today. As

often happens in basic science you, the reader, will find that many of the treasured

concepts that you learned and believed to be true, are not true. You must like an ancient

philosopher, carefully re-evaluate the evidence for the truth of Nature.

B. The Problem of the Discrete Electron Seen by Einstein

The structure of the electron had always been a puzzle but in hindsight the obstacle was

the erroneous belief that it is a discrete material particle. Einstein had already deduced

this was impossible since Nature’s forces and properties do not match the discrete

particle. Einstein realized that matter is inseparable from the space it occupies. In

retrospect only a simple correction was needed: replace the material point electron with a

spherical quantum-wave electron. Then, its wave structure is easily found as a solution of

the scalar wave equation to get a quantum-wave electron based upon only two

fundamental principles of Nature. This is a new electron in current main-stream thinking,

but fulfills early proposals by William Clifford and Schroedinger. Surprisingly, all the

natural laws are found embedded in the wave structure of the electron – as suspected by

Einstein, Clifford and Schroedinger. Unfortunately research on this path was not as

exciting as the funded military and industrial technologies begun during WWII. ‘Truth is

no match for emotions.’

C. Historical Proposals for a Wave Structure of Matter (WSM)

William Clifford (1845-1879) a brilliant mathematician whose legacy includes modern

Clifford Algebras, lectured before the Cambridge Philosophical Society [1] on The

postulates of the Science of Space. He discussed our ability to deduce the geometry of

space at astronomical distances and in space too small (i.e. particles) to be observed,

stating: I hold:

1) That small portions of space are in fact analogous to little hills on a surface

which is on the average flat, namely that the ordinary laws of geometry are not

valid in them.

2) That this property of being curved or distorted is continually being passed on

from one portion of space to another after the manner of a wave.

3) That this variation of the curvature of space is what really happens in that

phenomenon which we call the motion of matter, whether ponderable or ethereal.

4) That in this physical world nothing else takes place but this variation subject to

the law of continuity.

Note that he was bold enough to conclude that the entire physical world ( motion of all

matter) therefore all of science and the Universe, was a result of this property of space.

This implied that all matter and motion was contained in ONE entity – space. In

hindsight, this paper shows that his analysis of the geometric properties of space, more

than a century ago, before quantum waves were discovered, were correct. Clifford’s

deductions about space were revolutionary at the time because space was not yet a

concept that many scientists recognized.

When J. J. Thompson discovered the electron in 1904 using cathode-ray tubes that

enabled him to calculated the charge to mass ratio, everyone was convinced that

electrons were discrete material particles. This discrete particle belief began to be

questioned about 1930, because the ‘wave functions’ of the Schroedinger Equation need

not be attached to individual electrons unless you assume that electrons are discrete. But

the Equation allows one to assume that discrete material electrons exist, or do not exist. It

is up to you to choose an interpretation. The math of quantum mechanics is neutral and

takes no position. The wave functions provide exact values of energy transfers but only

hint at how transfer happens. But knowing how was what Einstein wanted. We will see

below that it is not possible to know unless you abandon the notion of a discrete particle

and instead accept that the electron is a quantum wave structure. Then waves can transfer

energy.

In 1937, Irwin Schroedinger, the father of quantum theory, proposed [2] to eliminate

point particles by using a quantum wave structure. He wrote: What we observe as

material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of

space. Particles are just schaumkommen (appearances). That is, quantum waves

structures are real and discrete material particles are not. He was adding one element to

the work of Clifford – that the structure of the waves of space lead to the appearances we

observe of discrete particles These appearances underlie the rules we create to describe

the macro world of present day science but only indirectly do we see the real quantum

world of Nature itself. Again, by including all material bodies and forces, he was

concurring with Clifford and the ancient philosophers, that the space medium is the one

substance of everything.

A partial wave structure was found by Wheeler and Feynman [3] in a 1945 pioneer

attempt to find the energy-transfer mechanism of the electron. He sought a response of

the universe to the acceleration of an electron, by calculating waves traveling inward and

outward from the location of the electron center. This is reviewed in Section E below.

In 1950, Einstein [4] thought about the mechanism of the transmission of force from one

particle to another and concluded that space must possess a property that extends

throughout space to connect particles. In this sense, he agreed with Schroedinger and

Clifford. His knowledge of Nature told him that discrete particles cannot exist because

their borders would be an abrupt discontinuity. Particles and space must be continuous.

Further, assuming the Bohr concept were true, he asserted the notion of a discrete particle

being everywhere at once is impossible to imagine. He pointed out that the Bohr ideas are

never found in Nature. He rejected the point particle and Maxwell’s field Equations that

had become the bible of electrical engineering, writing: The combination of the idea of a

continuous field with that of material points discontinuous in space appears inconsistent.

Hence the material particle has no place as a fundamental concept in a field theory. Thus

even apart from the fact that gravitation is not included, Maxwell’s electrodynamics

cannot be considered a complete theory.

Research of Wave Structure. After 1945, particle physicists chose to work on post

WWII weapons. Research on wave structure stopped until 1985 when Milo Wolff using a

scalar wave equation with spherical quantum wave solutions, found the Wave Structure

of Matter described here. It successfully predicted the natural laws and the properties of

the electron, except its spin. Below this article derives a physical origin of spin that

accords with quantum theory, the Dirac Equation, and adds new results.

The new electron in Quantum-electrodynamics. Akira Tonomura of the Hitachi Corp

published in 1998, “The Quantum World unveiled by Electron Waves” (World Scientific

Press) a beautifully illustrated book describing quantization of flux in closed current

loops of real electron waves at low temperature. Quantization occurs because the

circulating electron calculate the electro-magnetics of transistor circuits, MIT awarded

him a $500,000 prize.

Ancient Greek philosophers, Aristotle, Parmenides, etc, and recent mathematicians such

as Leibnitz, Descartes, Spinoza, and Kant asserted, using the logic of philosophy, that all

matter and motion, (the entire universe) was derived from ONE substance. We will see

below that ordinary space fulfills this role as the wave medium of the Universe.

Eric Storri a science historian at Bradley University carefully studied [5] the accuracy of

the periodic table of the elements, a foundation stone of chemistry. He find the rules of

counting electrons in orbits do not always work. He questioned the assumption that

electrons exist inside the wave functions, writing, According to quantum mechanics the

very notion of individual electrons in stationary states was shown to be invalid. He

concluded, like Einstein, that a full understanding of the Atomic Table requires a better

knowledge of the electron.

These leading scientists above had concluded that the logical structure of matter is

quantum waves in space. Recent this has been mathematically worked out by Wolff

[6,7], and Mead [8] and are summarized in section H below.

D. Understanding Energy Exchange

We cannot measure anything in Nature without an energy exchange that tells us

something has happened. Experience! tells us that !communication or acquisition of

knowledge of any kind occurs only with an energy transfer. Storage of information,

whether in a computer disk or in our brain, always requires an energy transfer. Energy is

required to move a needle, to magnetize a tape, to stimulate a neuron. There are no

exceptions. This rule of nature is embedded in biology and our instruments. Thus, finding

the energy transfer mechanism between particles is part and parcel of understanding the

electron and the natural laws. Thus we must probe energy deeply. We cannot accept any

statement about the measurement of a natural event unless we verify the energy exchange

that allowed it. This is the test that distinguishes true from false. Skepticism is good for

science.

To understand the mechanism of energy exchange, we first need to understand it. Most

people assume that they understand energy exchange because they buy and use it every

day; Accordingly no further thought is needed. This is a logical trap because our human

scale experiences are not a guide for the real energy exchanges that take place on the

quantum level of electron and atoms.

The mechanism of energy transfer had often been sought using Maxwell’s Equations

(ME) and electromagnetic waves but the method has problems: The electron has

spherical symmetry but MEs have no wave solutions in spherical coordinates. Another

problem was the infinite fields (singularities) at the center of the discrete point electron.

Singularity avoidance was attempted using mathematical “renormalization” wherein

infinity was subtracted from infinity to obtain the desired result. In 1937, Paul Dirac

commented [9]: This is just not sensible mathematics. Sensible mathematics involves

neglecting a quantity when it turns out to be small – not neglecting it just because it is

infinitely great and you do not want it.

Feynman commented on the renormalization problem: But no matter how clever the

word, it is what I call a dippy process! Having to resort to such hocus pocus has

prevented us from proving that the theory of quantum electrodynamics is mathematically

self consistent. I suspect that renormalization is not mathematically legitimate.

E. Wheeler and Feynman’s Calculation to Find Energy Transfer

In 1945 Wheeler and Feynman (W&F) sought [3] the mechanism of energy transfer by

calculating electro-magnetic radiation from an accelerated electron. Their electron

generated outward and inward spherical waves and evoked a response of the universe

from absorber charges. W&F calculated the electron mainly to find a fundamental

understanding of the universe so they looked at many ideas. They discussed this with

Einstein who suggested a proposal by Tetrode [10] that light was two-way

communication exchange between source and receiver utilizing in- and out-waves.

Tetrode wrote, An atom that emits light from a star one hundred light years away, knew

then, one hundred years ago, that it would enter my eye today, before I was even born.

They considered this proposal realizing it was controversial because in-waves appear to

violate the causality principle: Actions should not appear before their causes. W&F

wished to use the in-waves but avoid violation. Their mathematical goal was to verify a

formula for radiation force found by Dirac using in/out scalar quantum waves.

Their accelerated electron generated both in- and out-waves. The out-waves then

stimulated absorber charges elsewhere in the universe whose waves returned to the initial

charge, a response of the Universe. Upon arrival, those waves became in-waves of the

initial charge. Remarkably (but as they intended) causality was not violated because they

cancelled in-waves from the absorbers upon arrival at the initial charge by opposite inwaves

from the charge! Force on the electron was assumed to be the product of charge

times half the difference of total in- and out-wave amplitudes. Dirac’s formula was

verified, independent of absorber properties provided that absorption was complete.

W&F described the wave behavior: Absorber charges at a large distance produce

spherical waves headed towards the source. At the moment the source is accelerated

these waves just touch the source. Thus all the waves from the absorber charges form an

array of approximately plane waves marching towards the source. The Huygens envelope

of these plane waves is a spherical in-going wave. The sphere collapses on the source,

and then pours out again as a divergent outward wave.

This description above of in-and out-waves is almost identical to the quantum waves of

the electron that can be obtained rigorously using a scalar wave equation in Section H

below. In hindsight, the partial success of W&F’s method was due to changing the vector

e-m waves to scalar waves, during their calculation so that in effect they were calculating

scalar quantum waves, even though they assumed the final sum of waves had vector

properties. This was not proper math, but nevertheless pointed to quantum waves as the

real structure of the electron. They were also forced to assume an illogical behavior of the

absorber – the absorber out-waves began before the initial acceleration – in order to arrive

at the electron at the moment of acceleration. This switching from vector e-m waves to

scalar quantum waves was needed in order to reach their goal.

F. Philosophical Importance

W&F’s work goes beyond explaining radiation forces because energy transfer and the

motion of matter are important fundamental processes of nature. Further their concept,

that the absorbers in the whole universe contributes to each electron, implies an interconnection,

i.e., Every charged particle is part of the universe and the universe is part of

each charged particle. This implies that each of us, including you and me, are connected

together as part of the observable universe! This fundamental but revolutionary concept is

still not recognized by mainstream physics. It caused much speculation and others, such

as Hoyle & Narlikar [11], and Cramer [12] used W&F’s work to examine the universe.

G. The Answer to Einstein’s Question

Einstein wished to resolve the disparity between the experimental properties of the

electron and the common discrete electron model. He also wanted to know why it appears

that “God plays dice” according to the uncertainty interpretation of quantum mechanics,

that he did not believe.

Wolff [6,7], Mead [8], and Haselhurst [13] explored the Scalar Wave Equation and found

that its solutions form a quantum-wave structure, possessing all the electron’s

experimental properties, eliminating the paradoxes of quantum mechanics and

cosmology. This wave structure completely replaces the material particle. This is what

Einstein wanted to know. Finding that the discrete particle electron does not exist,

removes the Bohr interpretation of the wave functions and assures us that God does not

play dice as well as removing the infamous wave-particle paradoxes. The mathematical

approach below describes the electron, its origin and role in the universe.

H. Solutions of the Scalar Wave Equation

Waves without Mathematics. You need not be a mathematician to understand the wave

structure of the Universe, so I have written the description below in ordinary prose. At

the same time, I have also written the related equations. Why both? So you can ask

your mathematician friends to verify that indeed both descriptions agree. You can read

either or both as you like.

Principle I – The scalar wave equation in Space. The universe abounds with things that

oscillate, such as; the ocean surface, a violin string, a drum head, a child on a swing, and

the structure of electrons and atomic matter. All have a property in common: Energy of

motion is exchanging back and forth with energy of position. It is precisely this

energy exchanging property that is the heart of a wave equation. There is always a

wave medium involved such as: water, a string, a membrane, a rope, and, for microatomic

matter, basic to all oscillators, the medium is space. Mathematicians use the

equation to calculate position and speed of the moving thing but you can understand it

just knowing about the energy exchange.

To understand the electron we need to find and solve a wave equation in space. Since the

universe is three-dimensional, the logical choice is the well-known scalar 3D wave

equation. It is not fruitful to consider the vector wave equation – so familiar in

electromagnetic wave guides – because it has no solutions in 3-D space. Thus this step

was easy – only one choice.

I won’t write the scalar wave equation because your math friend already knows it.

Sufficient to say there are only two possible spherical wave solutions. Again an easy step:

The outward wave = Øout = (1/r) Øo exp(iwt – kr) (1a)

The inward wave = Øin = (1/r) Øo exp(iwt + kr) (1b)

Where Øo is a scalar wave amplitude, frequency w = 2″mc 2/h, k= wave number. The

physical dimension is the radius r of the spherical waves, from a wave center.

You can picture the waves as continually expanding and converging bubbles of energy

as drawn in figure 1. From our human scale perspective we imagine the location of the

‘particles’ as the wave centers. But better yet – a trip to your computer will show you

moving animated waves of the electron – the four best web sites are:

1. http://www.QuantumMatter.com/see – It shows the electron – made by Winston Wolff in

Berkeley, California. 2. daugerresearch.com/orbitals/index.html It shows the H atom –

by Dean Dauger at UCLA, Los Angeles. 3. http://www.SpaceAndMotion.com/Physics

providing philosophy by Geoff Haselhurst in Nornalup, Australia.

4. http://www.geocities.com/glafreniere00/matter.htm by Gabriele Freniere in Canada.

These animations show you how the two oppositely moving waves form a resonance in

space around a center. You can exchange ideas at a Yahoo discussion group:

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Wave-Structure-Matter/

Waves of the electron-positron. These two waves can be combined in only two forms

which are the structures of the electron-positron. These are combinations of the in- and

out- spherical waves:

electron = Øin – Øout + CW spin (2a)

positron = Øout – Øin + CCW spin (2b)

The in-waves reverse direction at the center to become out-waves. This reversal is

expressed mathematically by CW and CCW rotation (spin) operators on the waves [14].

The operators cause either ‘3D clockwise’ or ‘3D counter-clockwise’ allowed motions

that do not tangle up the coordinates of space. The inward wave rotates twice in a 3D

fashion, that converts it to an outward wave as is Figure 1. The rotation fulfills a

geometric requirement of wave continuity and produces the formerly mysterious quantum

spin of value h/4″. Both the amplitude of the waves and the direction of spin are opposite

to each other in the electron and positron. This is the reason that electron-positron

superposition experimentally produces annihilation. Notice how simple Nature makes the

electron by choosing the simplest and only means of oscillating in free space!

Look above in Section E above, where W&F approximately described the behavior of

the actual waves of the electron or positron, even though the waves were not known at

that time. Their description of the in-waves as a Huygens superposition of out-waves

from other particles (absorbers) in the universe, shown in Figure 2, accords with other

calculations. Missing from the W&F description was the 720o rotation of the in-wave that

changes it to an out-wave. This basis of electron spin was not known before the work of

Wolff [6] and Batty-Pratt [14].

The second Principle II of the WSM is used to calculate the density of the quantum

wave medium – the space all around us. The role of the medium was foreseen in 1883

by Ernst Mach [15] who noticed that the inertia of a body depended on the presence of

the visible stars. His deduction of the familiar law F=ma, arose from two different

methods of measuring rotation. First, without looking at the sky one can measure the

centrifugal force on a rotating mass m and use the inertia law F = ma to find

circumferential speed and position, as in a gyroscope. The second method is to compare

the object’s angular position with the fixed (distant) stars. Both methods give exactly the

same result. He asserted: “Every local inertial frame is determined by the composite

Figure 2. Formation of the in-wave. The spherical

out-waves of an initial electron encounter other

electron wave-centers. At each encounter, a signature

of the initial electron is transferred to the out-waves

of the other electrons. The out-waves generated

become a Huygens combination, the in-wave of the

initial electron. This intermingled exchange of waves

makes each particle like a 3D hologram of all others

in the universe, Wolff [7].

Figure 1. The spherical waves of the electron or positron.

Each is a pair of waves, one converging, one diverging, that

form a continuous resonant structure in space. The wave

amplitudes of the electron are exactly opposite to those of

the positron. Rotations of 720o at the center that transform

in-waves to out-waves, are also opposite. The resulting spin

= ± h/4″. Thus, superposition of an electron and a positron

causes annihilation since Eqn. 2a = – Eqn. 2b.

matter of the fixed stars (the universe)” and jokingly, “When the subway jerks, it is the

fixed stars that throw you down.”

At first, Mach’s Principle was criticized because it appeared to predict instantaneous

action-at-a-distance across empty space. How can information travel from here to the

stars and back again in an instant? It cannot. The answer is that the inertial energy

exchange mechanism, formerly unknown, is the interaction of waves from accelerated

matter with the universal space medium around it. Space is not empty because it is a

quantum wave medium created by waves from every particle in the universe. Inertia,

charge, and other forces are seen by us as effects of the wave interaction with the

surrounding space medium. There is no need to travel across the universe.

There is only one way to rationalize Mach’s principle of inertia and our experience: That

is, the matter of the universe creates the wave medium in all space of the Universe. Thus

the inertia of an accelerated object is an energy exchange to the waves in the space

around it. We observe space as coincident with the framework of the fixed stars. The

laser gyro used in commercial aircraft is an important application of Principle II. You can

experience rotational inertia yourself by spinning on a piano stool.

How is Principle II obtained mathematically? Wolff [6] extended Mach’s Principle by

calculating the density of the wave medium as the sum of the squares of the waves from

every particle in the universe, each diminished by the inverse square of the distance.

Knowing the density you can calculate the velocity c of the waves, their amplitude and

the motion of the wave centers. The velocity c is almost constant everywhere because

there are so many (1080) particles contributing waves. Nevertheless, c varies somewhat

near large masses like the Sun.

It is important to realize that inertia is an interaction between an accelerated object and its

surrounding space. You should not try to imagine that the object is interacting with the

distant stars. Instead the density of the surrounding space is already created by the waves

from the distant stars. This agrees with laboratory experience using gyroscopes,

accelerometers, and the laser gyros that navigate aircraft. Before knowledge of the space

medium, inertia was a paradox stated by Newton as: action-at-a-distance.

If you think Principle II over carefully, you will see a strange feedback loop in Nature, as

follows: The matter of the universe combines to tell the space medium what it is and in

turn the medium tells all matter how to behave. In other words: The matter of the

universe determines the particles and the particles determine the matter.

The reader may be inclined to disbelieve this strange result. But there are several

confirmations, one of which is Einstein’s General Relativity (GTR) which contains the

same feedback loop: Reduced to basics GTR calculates the density of space-time at each

point in space using the density of matter and energy everywhere in the universe. A

varying density is referred to as curvature of space. This space density is then used to

determine the paths of moving matter and of light which follows the curvature. Archibald

Wheeler expressed this: All the matter of the universe tells space what it is and in turn

space tells matter how it must move. The feed back loop is the same. This is not

surprising because we have already found that all physical laws are a result of the WSM

and its space medium. If GTR were not included in the WSM this would be unexpected

indeed. Nevertheless, this feedback in Nature is puzzling and perhaps the reader can

assess its further meaning.

Equation of the Cosmos. A simple calculation [16] using Principle II also yields an eyeopening

relationship between the effective radius r of the electron waves, the radius R of

the Hubble universe and the number N of particles in the universe, termed the Equation

of the Cosmos:

r2 = R2/! [3N]

This is remarkable! The smallest things of the universe, r, depend only on the largest, R

and N. This equation also expressed the connectivity of matter – each particle depends

upon all others in the universe. The computed value of r corresponds with the classical

electron radius, approximately 10-15 m. This is expected. It is the logical common thread

between Mach’s Principle, General Relativity, and the ancient philosopher’s concept of

ONE substance, which are brought together as consequences of the Wave Structure of

matter.

Why can’t we feel ‘space’? Feeling requires a sensor of an energy exchange. We don’t

easily sense the space medium because our survival as an animal species depends mostly

on our ability to fight with other animals seeking food, and to compete for mates that

produce children. Observing the medium would not help our survival so Nature has not

equipped us to sense it. In our self-focused human perspective few of us are even aware

of the wave medium in which we exist. For survival, it doesn’t matter what space is, or

whether we can observe it – it exists nevertheless. As Sir Oliver Lodge quipped: A fish

cannot comprehend the existence of water. He is too deeply immersed in it.

I. Origin of the Natural Laws

The wave structure of the electron Eqns. (2a & 2b) contains the experimentally observed

natural laws. The mathematics are derived by Wolff [6,16] and summarized as follows:

a) Doppler. The most surprising consequence of the WSM is found from the Doppler

effect between two relatively moving wave centers. Say, one is an observer electron and

the other is a source (another electron). Using Doppler math, you will find the relativistic

mass increase, the Compton and deBroglie wavelengths, and consequently the

Schroedinger Equation. At first it seems astonishing that all these occur together but

upon reflection it is logical since each of them depends on relative velocity. They are

calculated by writing two waves, like Eqns. 2a or 2b, for the two relatively moving

electrons. The Doppler effect is then inserted into both the inward and outward waves.

Then you find that in each term of the resulting total Doppler shifted wave that contains

mass or frequency, there is a relativistic mass-increase factor. And the Doppler

wavelength becomes the deBroglie wavelength, and, the phase velocity contains the

Compton wavelength. Before the WSM there was no theoretical explanation of either

QM or SRT or their common origin. Now the reason is immediately clear from the wave

algebra: Both the in- and the out-waves have symmetrical roles in the Doppler. This

means there is no dependence on the direction of the relative velocity, as is

experimentally observed.

b) Annihilation of electron and positron waves occurs when super-imposed. This is

immediately obvious because Eqn. 2a = – Eqn.2b.

c) Spin of h/4″ occurs due to 3D rotation of the in-wave at the center to become an

out-wave. This rotation is. described by the SU2 group theory of Battey-Pratt [14].

The two opposite rotations produce matter and anti-matter that make up the binary

universe in which we live. This is especially interesting because group-math

theorists have shown that this type of rotation is a property of 3D space only, not

4D, or 10D or 11D etc. Thus matter and anti-matter can occur only in a 3D world.

d) Energy Conservation occurs because only identical wave states can resonate

with each other, producing equal and opposite frequency (energy) shifts.

e) Electric force interactions appear to occur (as proposed by Schroedinger) at the

high-density centers. The wave centers look like point charges, as in Figure 3.

f) Gravity is a property of the behavior of wave centers [13]. It occurs because the

in-wave, on arrival at the center, establishes the position and motion of a particle.

Then matter nearby can modify the density of the surrounding medium, according

to Principle II. Finally, the changed medium density causes the in-wave to speed

up going towards the nearby matter. We observe this speed-up as gravity force.

Other forces are also produced by a similar change of medium density.

g) The CPT (charge, parity and time) transformation properties of an electron have

been observed in experimental QM for many years but the reasons have not been

known. CPT means that if you switch a particle to its opposite property in the

order C >P >T you will arrive back to the initial particle. Now you can easily

show with a little algebra that Eqns. 2a and 2b contain this property.

h) Inertia – The acceleration of matter changes its Doppler frequency relative to the

surrounding wave medium. Restoring frequency equilibrium produces energy

exchanges with the medium that appears as a local force F=ma that has been

known experimentally since Galileo and Newton, but the reason has not been

Figure 3. Apparent location of charges.

The spherical wave structures of atoms and the

electrons arrange themselves in a configuration of

minimum amplitude or minimum energy. For

example, in this crystal, the waves of adjacent

electrons overlap with opposing phases resulting

in equal spacing of the wave centers. This is

caused by Principle II. Most of the wave

amplitude of an atom and its electrons are

concentrated around a center point where energy

exchange occurs. This produces the appearance

of a particle that we emotionally expect, as

predicted by Schroedinger.

known. The total energy exchange will follow the relativistic rule from a) above,

that at small velocity becomes the familiar energy rule E=1/2mv2.

J. The New Electrodynamics

Prof. Carver Mead, an engineer at Cal Tech investigated the e-m consequences of the

WSM in his 2000 book “Collective Electrodynamics” [8]. This book is very popular in

Silicon Valley because it shows correct ways to solve the electromagnetics of transistor

circuits. He recognized that the electron is not a point particle but a wave structure. Thus

the approximations of Maxwell’s Equation do not work when dimensions approach the

quantum region, especially magnetism. Mead made use of the electron wave structure

observed at low temperatures [17] to derive a vector potential in place of the erroneous

magnetic terms of Maxwell Equations – an error foreseen by Einstein. His work begins

an important future for wave-based electromagnetism.

K. Conclusions

The proposals of Clifford and Schroedinger were correct that an electron is a continuous

wave structure in space not a material particle, and our observation of point particles and

electromagnetic waves are merely appearances (schaumkommen). The Schroedinger

wave functions must be interpreted as the electron itself, not as probability numbers, as

seen at the Dean Dauger (UCLA) animation site above. Many classic paradoxes,

including, ‘renormalization’, wave-particle duality, and Copenhagen uncertainty, no

longer occur because they were caused by the notion of a material particle that does not

exist. There is no causality violation because the in-waves are real and do not run

backwards in time.

Unity of the Universe. The wave medium – the space around us – is the ONE source of

matter and the natural laws. Since the waves of each particle are inter-mingled with the

waves of other matter and all contribute to the density of the medium, it follows that

every charged particle is part of the universe and the universe is part of each charged

particle.

Principle II (extended Mach principle) states that the stars and galaxies of the universe

are essential to the laws of Nature and to the existence of the Earth and ourselves. This

important fact is not presently familiar to the physics community. For example, the

present Standard Model of the universe contain no recognition of Mach’s Principle, or

our inter-connection with the universe.

Why has the science community not sought the WSM? There is a dark side to the

development of science. It is tempting to imagine scientists as noble pioneers, questing

for the greater good of humanity, and transfixed by the wonderful mysteries of the world.

However the day to day history of nearly every radical discovery tells an entirely

different story portraying a community that will eat its own in the name of progress and

where each member usually votes his pocketbook. Scientists are no different than you or

I. All the deadly sins of man and womankind are also found in the hearts of scientists.

Knowing this helps understand why the science community has not sought the Wave

Structure of Matter. It will take a long time to dispel treasured scientific illusions even

though following the path of the discrete particle leads science down a dead end street.

Figure 4.

L. The Future

There will be new valuable applications of the WSM in technologies concerned with the

behavior of matter at small molecular dimensions: especially the quantum world at low

temperature, the design of new alloys and catalysts, more efficient power transmission,

understanding the mechanisms of bio-physics, building molecular computers and

memories.

References:

1. Wm. Clifford,(1876) “On the Space Theory of Matter” in The World of Mathematics,

p568, Simon and Schuster, NY (1956).

2. E. Schroedinger. In Schroedinger- Life and Thought, Cambridge U. Press, p327

(1989).

3. J. A. Wheeler, and R. Feynman, Rev. Mod. Phys. 17, 157 (1945).

4. A. Einstein, Relativity, Crown Books (1950).

5. E. R. Storri, American Scientist 85, Nov-Dec, pp 546-553 (1997).

6. M. Wolff, Physics Essays 6, No 2, 181-203 (1993).

7. M. Wolff, Gravitation and Cosmology in From the Hubble Radius to the Planck

Scale, R. L. Amoroso et al (Eds.), pp 517-524, Kluwer Acad. Publ. (2002).

8. C. Mead, Collective Electrodynamics, MIT Press (2000).

9. P.A.M. Dirac, Proc. Roy. Soc. London A117, 610 (1929).

10. H. Tetrode, Zeits. F. Physik 10, 312 ((1922)

11. F. Hoyle and J. Narlikar, Rev. Mod. Phys. 67, No. 1, 113 (1995).

12. J. Cramer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 647 (1986).

Figure 4. The illusive lure of the

discrete particle. Although the

twentieth century pioneers of

physics urged their peers to

cons ider waves as the

fundamental structure of matter,

the temptations of government led

science down a dead end street

searching for discrete particles.

The government wanted to buy

weapons of high-energy and the

physics community tried to

oblige. As Prof Carver Meade

wrote: The last 70 years of the

20th century will be seen in history

as the dark ages of science.

13. G. Haselhurst, (to be published in) What is the Electron, Apeiron Press (2004).

14. E. Batty-Pratt and T. Racey, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 19, 437 (1980).

15. E. Mach, (1883 German). English: The Science of Mechanics, Open Court (1960).

16. Wolff, M. Exploring the Physics of the Unknown Universe, Technotran Press, (1990).

17. B.S. Deaver and W.M. Fairbank, Phys. Rev. Ltrs. 7, 42 (1961)

Source: http://www.quantummatter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/EinsteinsLastQuestion.pdf